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  • Gennady Lemud

What is Conservation Photography?

Image by Nicole Holman

Conservation photography is a specialized field of visual storytelling that uses compelling and impactful imagery to advocate for the protection and preservation of nature, wildlife, and the environment. It combines elements of photojournalism, documentary photography, and environmental activism to raise awareness about critical conservation issues such as habitat destruction, climate change, pollution, and human-wildlife conflict.

Through powerful images, conservation photography seeks to inspire individuals, communities, and policymakers to take action toward sustainable practices and positive change. These images go beyond mere aesthetics. They strive to document environmental concerns and drive positive change. This form of photography often highlights both the challenges facing the natural world and the success stories of conservation efforts. Conservation photography thereby offers a snapshot of our planet's ecosystems and biodiversity. It also acts as a call to find a path forward for their protection and preservation.  

A Simple Definition of Conservation Photography

Conservation photography is a form of visual storytelling that advocates for the protection and preservation of nature, wildlife, and the environment. It focuses on capturing images that highlight conservation issues and challenges. It presents them in a way that sparks empathy and awareness. 

What are the Elements of Conservation Photography?


The core of conservation photography is to convey a meaningful message that advocates for conservation, sustainability and coexistence. This intent is a guiding principle in the conservation photographer's work.


Conservation photographers conduct thorough research to understand the subjects and ecosystems, which they are documenting. This may include studying the behavior of wildlife, the health of ecosystems, and the impact of human activities.


The ultimate goal of the field of conservation photography is to use the images to educate the public, inspire action, and influence policymakers. Conservation photography aims to contribute to long-term conservation efforts and to inspire positive change for the environment.

Why is Conservation Photography Important?

Education and Awareness

Conservation photography plays a crucial role in educating the public about pressing environmental issues. By capturing meaningful images of wildlife and nature, photographers can illustrate the urgency of conservation challenges such as habitat loss, climate change, and species extinction. This awareness is the first step toward building support for conservation efforts.

Inspiring Action

Images can evoke strong emotional responses, motivating individuals and communities to take action. Conservation photography has the power to mobilize support for conservation initiatives, to inspire grassroots movements, policy changes and corporate responsibility.

Documenting Change

Conservation photography provides a visual record of changes in the natural world over time. By documenting the effects of human activity and the progress of conservation efforts, photographers contribute valuable data for scientists and policymakers. These visual records can help track the success of initiatives and inform future conservation strategies.

Image by Liam Brennan

How Does Conservation Photography Differ from Other Types of Nature Photography?

Intentional Storytelling

Focus on Advocacy

While nature photography can capture the beauty of the natural world, conservation photography aims to tell a story that advocates for the protection of wildlife and ecosystems.

Purposeful Imagery

Conservation photography prioritizes narrative and impact over aesthetics, seeking to convey a message and inspire action.

Research and Planning

In-Depth Research

Conservation photographers invest time in understanding the conservation issues which they are addressing. They research their subjects and the environments they inhabit. The issues can include the following:

Wildlife and Habitat Conservation

  • Endangered Species: Documenting species at risk and the efforts to protect them.

  • Habitat Destruction: Showcasing the impact of deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization on natural habitats.

  • Rehabilitation Efforts: Capturing the process and progress of restoring ecosystems and reintroducing species.

Climate Change and Its Impact

  • Melting Glaciers: Illustrating the retreat of glaciers and its consequences for ecosystems and communities.

  • Sea Level Rise: Highlighting the effects of rising sea levels on coastal areas and islands.

  • Extreme Weather Events: Documenting the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters linked to climate change.

Image by Ryan Wilkes

Human-Wildlife Conflict

  • Encroachment: Showing the impact of human expansion on animal territories.

  • Poaching and Illegal Trade: Documenting the illegal hunting and trade of wildlife.

  • Community Initiatives: Highlighting grassroots efforts to resolve human-wildlife conflict and promote coexistence.

Conservation Success Stories

  • Species Recovery: Capturing successful recovery efforts and the rebound of threatened species.

  • Protected Areas: Illustrating the benefits and success of national parks, reserves, and marine protected areas.

  • Community-Led Conservation: Showcasing how local communities are taking charge of conservation efforts and achieving positive outcomes.

Pollution and Environmental Degradation

  • Plastic Pollution: Visualizing the impact of plastic waste on oceans, rivers, and land.

  • Water Pollution: Showcasing the effects of agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and sewage on freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  • Air Pollution: Illustrating the health and environmental impacts of industrial emissions and vehicle exhaust.


Careful planning ensures photographers capture meaningful moments and behaviors that highlight conservation challenges and successes. These efforts require preparation, resources, training, and time.  

Ethical Practices

Minimizes Damage to Natural Habitat

Conservation photographers make a point to minimize the traces they leave while working in natural environments. This includes reducing noise pollution by animal calls and light pollution from camera flashes. Conservation photographers are even secretive about where they shoot, so they don’t encourage other photographers to come to the same areas and potentially disrupt their subjects. 

No Use of Bait

Baiting animals is practiced among many nature photographers, whereby they use food to attract their subjects to a target area. Unfortunately, this disrupts an animal’s natural habits. If they become accustomed to being fed, their ability to fend for themselves in the wild is diminished. Similarly, bait can disrupt an animal’s digestive system by being well outside their natural diet. Baited animals may also become habituated to relying on sources of food provided by people, creating an unnatural dependence and disrupting their foraging instincts.

Respect an Animal’s Space

Animals experience stress when approached closely by photographers. Conservation photographers endeavor for maximum distance in order to allow animals to follow their normal habits and not feel pressured to make drastic changes. Close proximity to wildlife can also interrupt their feeding behaviours, potentially frightening them away from their intended meals.

Use of Imagery

Educational Tools

Conservation photographs are often used in educational campaigns, documentaries, and awareness materials to inform and engage the public.


Photographers often work with scientists, NGOs, and policymakers to ensure their images are used effectively to support conservation efforts.

What Makes a Successful Conservation Photograph?

Image by Shane Gross

Emotionally Evocative Subject

Telling a Story

Successful conservation photographs tell a compelling story that resonates with viewers on an emotional level, creating a connection between the audience and the natural world.

Capturing Authenticity

Authentic images that portray animals and ecosystems in their natural state can evoke empathy and concern, motivating viewers to support conservation efforts.

Informative Visuals

Providing Context

Effective conservation photography offers context about the issue being documented, including data and facts that support the visual story. This adds depth to the images and helps viewers understand the significance of the issue.

Showing Impact

Successful conservation photography highlights the impact of human activity on the environment, whether it’s the negative consequences of pollution or the positive outcomes of conservation initiatives.

Call to Action

Inspiring Change

Successful conservation photographs often include a call to action, urging viewers to participate in conservation efforts or support organizations working on these issues.

Driving Engagement

Conservation photographers use various platforms, such as social media, to engage with audiences and amplify the impact of their work.

How Can Conservation Photography Shape the Future?

Influencing Policy and Legislation

Conservation photography can provide visual evidence to support conservation policies and legislation. By documenting the effects of environmental degradation, photographers can influence policymakers and encourage them to adopt stronger conservation measures.

Mobilizing Communities

By raising awareness and promoting a sense of urgency, conservation photographers can mobilize communities to take collective action for conservation and sustainability. This grassroots engagement can lead to significant change and long-term conservation success.

Supporting Scientific Research

Conservation photography can complement scientific research by providing visual documentation of ecological changes and challenges. This collaboration can lead to more effective conservation strategies, as well as innovative solutions to environmental issues.

Conservation photography is a vital tool for advocating for the natural world. Its focus on intentional storytelling, research, and impact sets it apart from other types of nature-focused photography. As the world faces increasing environmental challenges, conservation photography plays an important role in raising awareness, inspiring action, and shaping a sustainable future for our planet.

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