top of page


CROSSING PATHS-Geoffrey Reynaud-2022-0281.jpg

Bishop, C. A., & Brogan, J. M. (2013). Estimates of Avian Mortality Attributed to Vehicle Collisions in Canada. Avian Conservation and Ecology, 8(2), art2.

Blanding’s Turtle, Emydoidea blandingii SARA. (n.d.).

Canada, T. (n.d.). Road Transportation. Transport Canada. Retrieved September 10, 2023, from

Clevenger, A. P., Chruszcz, B., & Gunson, K. E. (2001). Highway mitigation fencing reduces wildlife-vehicle collisions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29(2), 9.

Clevenger, A. P., Chruszcz, B., & Gunson, K. F. (2023). Highway Mitigation Fencing Reduces Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions.

Clevenger, A. P., & Waltho, N. (2005). Performance indices to identify attributes of highway crossing structures facilitating movement of large mammals. Biological Conservation, 121(3), 453–464.

Fahrig, L., Pedlar, J. H., Pope, S. E., Taylor, P. D., & Wegner, J. F. (n.d.). EFFECT OF ROAD TRAFFIC ON AMPHIBIAN DENSITY.

Fahrig, L., & Rytwinski, T. (2009). Effects of Roads on Animal Abundance: An Empirical Review and Synthesis. Ecology and Society, 14(1), art21.

Garrah, E., Danby, R. K., Eberhardt, E., Cunnington, G. M., & Mitchell, S. (2015). Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor. Environmental Management, 56(4), 874–889.

Goldfarb, B. (2023, September 7). America Is Telling Itself a Lie About Roadkill. The Atlantic.

Huijser, M. P., Duffield, J. W., Clevenger, A. P., Ament, R. J., & McGowen, P. T. (2009). Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: A Decision Support Tool. Ecology and Society, 14(2), art15.

Huijser, M. P., Fairbank, E. R., Camel-Means, W., Graham, J., Watson, V., Basting, P., & Becker, D. (2016). Effectiveness of short sections of wildlife fencing and crossing structures along highways in reducing wildlife–vehicle collisions and providing safe crossing opportunities for large mammals. Biological Conservation, 197, 61–68.

Riley, S. P. D., Pollinger, J. P., Sauvajot, R. M., York, E. C., Bromley, C., Fuller, T. K., & Wayne, R. K. (2006). A southern California freeway is a physical and social barrier to gene flow in carnivores: PHYSICAL and SOCIAL BARRIER TO GENE FLOW. Molecular Ecology, 15(7), 1733–1741.

Tian, Z., Zhao, H., Peter, K. T., Gonzalez, M., Wetzel, J., Wu, C., Hu, X., Prat, J., Mudrock, E., Hettinger, R., Cortina, A. E., Biswas, R. G., Kock, F. V. C., Soong, R., Jenne, A., Du, B., Hou, F., He, H., Lundeen, R., … Kolodziej, E. P. (2021). A ubiquitous tire rubber–derived chemical induces acute mortality in coho salmon. Science, 371(6525), 185–189.

Trombulak, S. C., & Frissell, C. A. (2000). Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities. Conservation Biology, 14(1), 18–30.

Van der Ree, R., Smith, D. J., & Grilo, C. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of road ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Wilhelm, S. I., Dooley, S. M., Corbett, E. P., Fitzsimmons, M. G., Ryan, P. C., & Robertson, G. J. (2021). Effects of land-based light pollution on two species of burrow-nesting seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Avian Conservation and Ecology, 16(1), art12.

Ascensão, F., & Capinha, C. (2017). Aliens on the Move: Transportation Networks and Non-native Species. In L. Borda-de-Água, R. Barrientos, P. Beja, & H. M. Pereira (Eds.), Railway Ecology (pp. 65–80). Springer International Publishing.


Backs, J. A. J., Nychka, J. A., & St. Clair, C. C. (2017). Warning systems triggered by trains could reduce collisions with wildlife. Ecological Engineering, 106, 563–569.


Barrientos, R., & Borda-de-Água, L. (2017). Railways as Barriers for Wildlife: Current Knowledge. In L. Borda-de-Água, R. Barrientos, P. Beja, & H. M. Pereira (Eds.), Railway Ecology (pp. 43–64). Springer International Publishing.


Carvalho, F., Santos, S. M., Mira, A., & Lourenço, R. (2017). Methods to Monitor and Mitigate Wildlife Mortality in Railways. In L. Borda-de-Água, R. Barrientos, P. Beja, & H. M. Pereira (Eds.), Railway Ecology (pp. 23–42). Springer International Publishing.


Lohan, T. (2019, April 5). Death by Rail: What We’re Finally Learning About Preventing Wildlife-train Collisions. The Revealtor.


Lucas, P. S., De Carvalho, R. G., & Grilo, C. (2017). Railway Disturbances on Wildlife: Types, Effects, and Mitigation Measures. In L. Borda-de-Água, R. Barrientos, P. Beja, & H. M. Pereira (Eds.), Railway Ecology (pp. 81–99). Springer International Publishing.


Pollock, S. Z., Nielsen, S. E., & St. Clair, C. C. (2017). A railway increases the abundance and accelerates the phenology of bear-attracting plants in a forested, mountain park. Ecosphere, 8(10), e01985.

Santos, S. M., Carvalho, F., & Mira, A. (2017). Current Knowledge on Wildlife Mortality in Railways. In L. Borda-de-Água, R. Barrientos, P. Beja, & H. M. Pereira (Eds.), Railway Ecology (pp. 11–22). Springer International Publishing.

Government of Canada, O. of the A. G. of C. (2018, October 2). Report 2—Protecting Marine Mammals.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2021, September 21). Understanding Vessel Strikes | NOAA Fisheries (National). NOAA.

WWF-Canada. (2022). National Vessel Dumping Assessment (p. 11).

Why All the Concern About Underwater Ship Noise? (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2023, from

Holt, M. M., Tennessen, J. B., Hanson, M. B., Emmons, C. K., Giles, D. A., Hogan, J. T., & Ford, M. J. (2021). Vessels and their sounds reduce prey capture effort by endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca). Marine Environmental Research, 170, 105429.

Marine Education and Research Society—Home. (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2023, from

Transport Canada. (2020, September 22). Sharing the Skies: Guide to the Management of Wildlife Hazards - TP 13549.

Transport Canada.

Transport Canada. (2018, April 26). Controlling wildlife near airports and aerodromes. AHPA 11874436; AHPA.

Transport Canada. (2002). Wildlife Control Procedures Manual.


Harris, D. (2023). Wildlife Strikes at Canadian Airports: A 2021 Annual Report. 51.

Cummins, K. W., & Wilzbach, M. A. (2019). Rivers and Streams: Ecosystem Dynamics and Integrating Paradigms. In Encyclopedia of Ecology (pp. 579–593). Elsevier.

Ecoscape Environmental Consultants Ltd. & Larratt Aquatic Ltd. (2023) Lake Windermere Recreational Impact and Sediment Quality Assessment Windermere Lake. Windermere-Recreational-Study-Report-V1.0.pdf (


French, J. (2017, March 27). The Environmental Impacts of Boating. Environmental Protection.


Larratt Aquatic Consulting Ltd. 2019. Boat Impact Studies on Kalamalka Lake 2017, 2019 and Sediment Study 2018.


Mosisch, T. D., & Arthington, A. H. (1998). The impacts of power boating and water skiing on lakes and reservoirs. Lakes & Reservoirs: Science, Policy and Management for Sustainable Use, 3(1), 1–17.


Sagerman, J., Hansen, J. P., & Wikström, S. A. (2020). Effects of boat traffic and mooring infrastructure on aquatic vegetation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ambio, 49(2), 517–530.

Government of Canada. (2023, June 29). Greenhouse gas emissions— Greenhouse Gas Emissions.


Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2021). NATIONAL INVENTORY REPORT 1990 –2021: GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES AND SINKS IN CANADA.

CIFFC | Fire Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2023, from

Roads and Highays References
Railways References
Oceans References
Aviation References
Lakes and Rivers References
Climate Change References
bottom of page